Saturday, October 4, 2014
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Thursday, October 2, 2014
Wednesday, October 1, 2014
Atheism and The Values of Man.
The denial of God’s existence destroys the nature of man , the purpose and meaning of life and also the objective values . Within the context of atheism man is an accidental bundle of material particles , transitory conglomerate which is destined to live without sense or purpose and without any direction in life. Life is short and man disappears into nothingness. There is no reason to expect any kind of life after physical death. The atheists like F. Nietzsche , J.P. Sartre , A. Camus and the new atheists ( R. Dawkins and others) om their writings openly confess the life as absurd . A person appears without any knowledge why, lives without any solid ground of values, and disappears in to darkness of eternity. Some modern thinkers like Berdyaev , Paul Tillich try to make people live with courage in the chaotic situation of modern man.
It is important to realize that for many persons atheism is something not properly understood . They do not see the deep destructive influence of atheistic attitudes . If God does not exist then any sense and direction of life is destroyed too . The value of life , the value of man, and any sense whatsoever is gone. M. Heidegger in his book, “Being and Time,” defines man as a being-on-to death . Dostoyevsky saw very clearly the consequences of atheism when he said “If God does not exist all is allowed.” This means that nothing is anymore good or evil better or worse because all values are simply subjective matters of taste and nothing else. The biblical commandments are meaningless because there are no objective values anymore. The objectivity of values especially moral values is precisely this that gives meaning and direction to human life.Otherwise life becomes completely molded by the desires and plans of the finite limited man. Man becomes the supreme lawgiver and creator of his own values. That is the meaning of Dostoyevsky’s statement and it is unquestionably true.
It seems that many people who casually sometimes would say “ Oh ! I am an atheist or
I am not religious.” do not really understand or realize what actually is the meaning of such statements. Therefore one has to think very seriously on the implications and consequences of the statement by Dostoyevsky: if God does not exist all is allowed. The second part of this statement is crucial because it implies the demolition and destruction of anything in human life that one can call good or evil, better or worse, valuable and useless . It means that any valuation of reality or man himself , and also his/her actions, are simply devoid of any shadow of good or evil. Man acts as he/she feels or thinks. When it comes to values it seems that man is carrying in his/her very nature the contradiction of inclinations towards destructiveness or towards development of life. If there is no God then there is no objective criterion for anything whatsoever to evaluate it in terms of good or evil. The arch enemy of Christianity F. Nietzsche wrote openly that man’s life should be lived beyond good and evil . In his parables he gives the short story of a madman:
In the bright daylight the madman walks into the market of the town and with the lit lantern is looking for something . The people surround him and laugh at him, and cynically asked with laughter ...“what are you looking for? Did you loose anything ? the madman very seriously looks at them and says: "I am looking for God, where is God?" The people laugh at him again and say:" God? What happened to him did he go for vacation or perhaps he lost his way in the woods!" The madman looks at them with the long look and then says with a heavy voice: “You know what happened to him, we murdered God, you and me, God is dead!..
Of course this is the story of a madman because God is Infinite Life itself and cannot die . However human beings can live as if God died, as if God does not exist . They may even sometimes use His name accidentally but de facto their live is completely materialistically oriented, and everything they do or think does not have anything to do with God and His will and plan for human beings .
If everything is allowed then obviously there are not objective value at all. Everyone is completely free to do whatever he/she thinks in a definite situation. whatever seems to him/her as desirable for some reason or other. Words such as moral responsibility, virtue or criminality and all other expressions of evaluation of human action as morally good or evil must rejected.
What someone does depends on his/her taste and changes in a moment into something else and still into something else. because all is neutral and on the same level . There is no transcend sanction of any kind.
Since God does not exist, therefore no eternity, no ultimate meaning of life , no ultimate purpose, no value and consequently no direction of any kind whatsoever .
Within the concept of atheism the very value of human beings is an illusion . Because man is just one of the many forms of living matter, and his life is not more valuable or important then the life of a mosquito or a rat. Man appears accidentally , lives not knowing why , or for what and after a very short life disappears into nothingness . The value of man is only his/her possibility to be exploited for some dictatorial principles of such people like Caesar ,the Pharo and in modern times Hitler, Stalin and such “great leaders.” If the individual does not agree with the regime of the dictator he/she is a nuisance and is eliminated sometimes on a mass scale. When the individual gets old or sick, he/she becomes a burden to the social welfare and an obstacle for a new younger generation.
Conclusion : Man must be eliminated too. Such means of extermination like abortion, euthanasia , assisted suicide are simply effective ways to keep the society young and active.
The law is made by those who are in power . It is flexible and dependent on the social structure which is always built on exploitation of the poor for the interest of the reach.
Without God and His will revealed to humans the basis of the value and meaning of human existence is simply meaningless and absurd as many existential thinkers confess.
Those are some consequences of atheism.
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Tuesday, September 30, 2014
www.dpl21.com (Home) Audio Recordings Content : Philosophical Thoughts and Reflections for Everyone by Leszek Figurski
Audio Lectures in Philosophy I
Intro PH-1.mp3( 00:24:59)
What is Philosophy?
Content: 1. Why Philosophy?
2. The purpose of existence
3. What or who am I?
4. What can I know ?
5. What should I believe?
6. What should I do with my life?
Intro-PH-2-mp.3 ( 00:11:48)
What is , if any the meaning of human life?
Content: 1. The inevitability of death
2. Is there any sense to believe in God?
3. Is there any afterlife?
4. Freedom, conscience, and morality.
5. The central question of life and it's meaning.
6.Why examine life?
7. God or no God?
8. Definition of Man.
The personal obligation and duty to start thinking philosophically
Content: 1. Various areas of philosophy
2.Metaphysics: deals with the theory of reality and the ultimate nature pf things (ontology: the theory of different kinds of beings)
3. Ethics (moral philosophy) right or wrong in human action
4.Epistemology (knowledge + logos, theory)
5. The scope of human knowledge
6.Logic as the art of correct thinking.
7. Philosophy of religion: The nature of the Divine and It's existence.
8. Political philosophy
9.How to formulate the proper questions
10. Obstacles to honest philosophical reflection.
The origin of Western Philosophy
Content: 1. Pre-Socratic Thinkers
2. First Metaphysicians: (How to discover the underlying reality as distinguished from phenomena)
From Thales to Plato:
Thales of Miletus ( VI Cent.B.C.)
Anaximander , Anaximenes, Heraclitus of Efesus (536-470 B.C.),
Denmocritus of Abdera,(460-360 B.C.),
Leucyppus, Parmenides of Elea, Anaxagoras (430 B.C.)
3. The greatest Ancient philosophers
Socrates, Plato (The Allegory of the Cave)
Aristotle of Stagira (384-322 B.C.): The concept of the four causes and God.
Socrates: Teaching the moral value of life.
Content: 1. Life and death
2. Philosophy: How to live morally good life.
3. What is most important in human life?
4. Basic interest: wisdom in contradistinction from common sense.
"An unexamined life is not worth living"
5. The final words of Socrates to the Athenian jurors:
" You are going to live, I am going to die, what is better God only knows."
Plato: Teaching on the soul
Content: 1. The Platonic tradition: The preexistence of soul before birth.
2. The Platonic dialogues
3. The difference between sens knowledge and intellectual knowledge.
4. The opposition of Aristotle.
5. Aristotle's unified vision of the cosmos.
6. Aristotle's influence on the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas.
I. The Pre- Socratic thinkers revisited.
Socrates. Plato. Aristotle
Content: 1. Two aspects of Pre-Socratic metaphysics
3. Socrates revisited:
Passivity and activity of the mind.Morality
5 . The Allegory of the Cave (Plato, Republic ( Chapter 7 )
6. Summary content of Socrates and Plato
7. The Death of Socrates - Apology by Plato
8. The nature of science and philosophical reflection , the accomplishment of science in Modern times.
9. Aristotle : The phenomena of change
(the existence of Prime Mover- Nous. Thought thinking itself)
10. The four causes. Purposiveness of the universe. The realistic concept of knowledge.
11. The possibility of transcendence
12. The concept of the Eternal and the temporal.
13. The notion of nothingness
14. The Vision of reality
Content: 1. The moral philosophy of Socrates and Plato
A. 1. The opposition of Aristotle and his vision of reality.
2. The idea of being
3. The metaphysical components of being: the four causes
4 .Analysis of change and the idea of potency and act.
5. The principles of realistic epistemology and philosophy.
6. Analysis of the notion of God
B. 1. Christian adaptation of Aristotelian philosophy and the system of Thomas Aquinas
2. Thomas Aquinas
3. God as Creator
4. Creatureliness of finite beings
5. The event of God-Man-Christ
Arguments for the existence of God
Content: 1. The objections to the existence of God
2. Search for the meaning human existence
3. Acceptance of validity of knowledge and the natural dynamism of the human mind.
4. Intelligibility of all reality to the human mind within limits
5. Metaphysical composition of being - essence and existence
6. Being is analogical
7. The concept and reality of causality
8. the basic principles of the operation of mind.
9. The arguments for God's existence in Thomas Acquinas
(a) The Prime Mover
(b) The First Cause
(c) Contingency and necessity
(d) The Supreme degree of Perfection
Content: 1. What is logic (thinking of arguments and arriving at sound inferences from given premises)
2. Why logic
3. What is an argument
4. Two modes of drawing conclusions
5. Deduction and it's rules
7. Some Fallacies
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